Some are referred to as “floodwater mosquitoes” because they lay their eggs on damp soil or vegetation in areas that can be periodically wet. The eggs remain dormant until they are flooded and conditions are favorable for hatching.
Other species prefer to lay their eggs in tree holes or artificial water containers. The eggs are laid above the water line waiting to be inundated with water to hatch.
Mosquitoes have four life cycles: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
Eggs laid on the water surfaces hatch in 1 to 3 days. Eggs laid above the water line remain dormant until flooded.
Larvae, referred to as ‘wigglers’, that hatch must live in water (floating on the surface) to survive. The larvae breathe through an air tube and filter food through mouth brushes. Depending upon the species and conditions, the larval stage can last from 5 days to several weeks.
Pupae, referred to as ‘tumblers’, are the third phase. Pupae can often be seen bobbing in the water or breathing at the surface. This stage does not feed and the adult should emerge within 2 to 3 days. Adults emerge from the water’s surface and fly away.
Only the adult female of each species takes blood that she needs to develop and lay eggs. Adult males feed on plant nectar.
Most mosquitoes feed between dusk and dawn. Their daylight hours are spent resting in dark and damp places. However, some mosquitoes feed during the day and others both day and night. In other words, always use caution during peak mosquito breeding seasons until their habits are identified in your area.
MOSQUITOES AND DISEASE
Female adult mosquitoes transmit diseases through their feeding habits. When blood is sucked from an infected bird or mammal, the virus, complex virus or parasite is taken into the mosquito. Once the organism multiplies within the mosquito enough to infect her saliva, the disease is transmitted when she feeds again.
The female is described as the “tiger mosquito” because of its white and black stripped body. The most common species in Singapore are the Aedes aegypti and the Aedes albopictus, both of which are responsible for the dengue fever, but the former is a vector for the dengue hemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.
Dengue-causing viruses need an incubation period of about 5 to 8 days and the symptoms are aching joints and muscles, fever, headache and sore throat, which are often mistaken for influenza.
The bad news is that unlike malaria, there is no vaccine available for dengue fever and medical treatment is only symptomatic and supportive. Recovery depends on how well your body can fight the dengue virus. The good news is that unlike malaria, dengue patients are not known to suffer relapses.
WAYS TO REDUCE MOSQUITO SOURCES
- Remove all water-holding containers from the property, including toys, tires, cans, etc.
- Clean and drain all roof gutters of debris to prevent standing water.
- Inspect flat roofs and remove any pooled water no more than every 5 to 7 days.
- Drain and seal any tree holes so they do not collect water.
- Change water in birdbaths and wading pools every 5 to 7 days.
- Fill in any low spots in yards that retain rain or irrigation water for more than 7 days.
- Clean drainage ditches and culverts so they do not collect water.
- Inspect flowerpots, container gardens or other receptacles around structures for mosquito larvae to be removed.
- Stock ponds or other permanent bodies of water with mosquito eating fish or treat waters with commercial larvacides to prevent mosquito populations from developing.
- Change exterior lighting fixtures to yellow bulbs or sodium vapor bulbs that are less attractive to mosquitoes.
- Use window shades or covers at night to prevent interior lighting from attracting mosquitoes.
Under the Control of Vectors and Pesticides Act, failure to destroy a mosquito breeding sites can cost you $20,000 fine and/or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months. For repeat offenders, the penalty is increased to $50,000 and/or 6 months imprisonment. Contact Us Now to prevent all these hassles @ 6205 5153 or email@example.com